Stockholm Syndrome 2024 Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Best Treatment

Stockholm Syndrome Causes: “The victim’s sense of isolation and the emotional connection that the abuser fosters (intentionally or unintentionally) are the key to the development of Stockholm syndrome,” says Carla Manly, a clinical psychologist, author, and trauma specialist in Sonoma County, California. We are discuss Stockholm Syndrome 2024 Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Best TreatmentA perceived or real absence of outside support is another important aspect in the development of Stockholm syndrome, according to Dr. Manly.

  • Perceived threat to survival
  • Showing of kindness from a captor
  • Isolation from other perspectives
  • Perceived inability to escape

Stockholm Syndrome Symptoms

Popular culture commonly portrays the occurrence of Stockholm syndrome as kidnapping survivors who fall in love, show sympathy for, or band together with their captors. A gang of domestic terrorists abducted Patty Hearst, a 19-year-old American media heiress, in 1974. After being carried away, Hearst announced her sympathy for the organization by aiding her captors in robbing a bank. Following her story via front-page headlines across the country, many contended that the kid had been indoctrinated. The renowned victim’s acts were linked to Stockholm syndrome, a relatively new illness at the time. It is common to misunderstand the complex disease known as Stockholm syndrome.

Stockholm syndrome is not considered a mental health disorder by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 TR). Rather, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) views it as a mental and emotional reaction. Some persons who have experienced severe trauma, such as kidnapping, domestic abuse, or human sex trafficking, develop Stockholm syndrome as a coping strategy or psychological defense. To discover more about Stockholm syndrome, we spoke with psychologists about what it may look like in various contexts, such as abusive relationships and toxic work environments.

Stockholm syndrome Causes 2024

Victims exhibit unique and distinctive behaviors. It is a unique reaction that isn’t appropriate in every circumstance. But because of his defense mechanism, the victim behaves in a way that makes him falsely identify with his abductor. The victim is compelled to act out of survival instinct to defend himself after being put in a painful and stressful circumstance that makes him look passive-aggressive in front of the captor.

It is crucial to remember that depriving someone their freedom because of the desire of another person puts the victims in a precarious and imbalanced position. The confusing circumstance they are placed in causes the patient to feel agony, fear, and panic. Revolting or accepting it are the only two options, and rebellion might have unfavorable effects, thus Stockholm Syndrome is the least dangerous course of action.

What Is Stockholm Syndrome?

In her book Has Your Child Been Traumatized?, Melissa Goldberg Mints, a certified clinical psychologist in Houston, Texas, states that “Stockholm syndrome is simply the experience of a victim feeling good about their perpetrator.” She says that from a psychological perspective, if you can relate to or feel some sort of sympathy or compassion for the person holding you captive or abusing you, then psychologically speaking, it may feel less terrifying than someone who seems truly unredeemable or evil.

Noel Hunter, a clinical psychologist and the director of Mind Clear Integrative Psychotherapy in New York City, says that if victims learn to develop a deep relationship with their abuser, they may also be able to survive thanks to this psychological protection. According to Dr. Hunter, a victim is stuck when the person they rely on for food, protection, and shelter is also the one abusing them. They cannot assault their caregiver or run the danger of scaring them away since they are entirely reliant on them. At the same time, they are being mistreated or tormented.

How Was the Name “Stockholm Syndrome” Derived?

A botched bank heist in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1973, just one year previous to the Patty Hearst kidnapping, resulted in hostages connecting with their kidnappers, giving origin to the phrase “Stockholm syndrome.” After spending over a week with the thieves, the bank staff seemed to have a close relationship with them or, at the very least, to have trust in them, so their answer was confusing. Since then, circumstances in which victims are protective of or friendly toward their captors or abusers have been referred to as “Stockholm syndrome.”

Hazards Associated with Stockholm Syndrome

As a coping mechanism, Stockholm syndrome does not appear in every victim.

Dr. Goldberg Mintz lists a few variables that might explain why it occurs in some circumstances but not others:

  • How long a person is held captive
  • The degree of communication with the offender
  • The victim’s coping mechanisms
  • Furthermore, among other types of abuse, victims of human trafficking, domestic violence, and child abuse may adopt Stockholm syndrome as a coping mechanism or emotional reaction.
  • It could also have anything to do with harsh work environments or even specific relationships between athletes and coaches.
  • Dr. Hunter claims that this kind of thinking may emerge in any situation where the victim perceives their abuser as being “in a position of authority,” enslaving and dependant on them.

Specific Situations where Stockholm syndrome

  • Child abuse: “Even when a parent is harming their child, it can be difficult for a child—especially a young one—to see their parent in a negative light,” says Dr. Goldberg Mintz. According to a 2005 research, while not all victims of child sexual abuse will have Stockholm syndrome, it can happen often, especially in situations when the abuse is continuous. Furthermore, the research indicates that a mysterious connection between the perpetrator and the abused individual might last until maturity.
  • Family relationships: This can occur when someone in the victim’s life physically abuses them, but it can also occur with other types of abuse. Dr. Goldberg Mintz suggests that one couple may chastise the other for their eating habits or even place restrictions on how much food they consume.
  • Relationships at work: “Our identities and self-worth can be wrapped up in our jobs for many people,” says Dr. Goldberg Mintz. We can thus be vulnerable to these kinds of workplace dynamics. For example, this might imply that your supervisor or employer disregards your personal space.
  • Sex trafficking: When victims depend on their abuser for basic needs like food, water, shelter, etc., they may be victims of human trafficking or sex trafficking.

Signs of Stockholm Syndrome

  • Dr. Hunter adds, “It bears repeating that Stockholm syndrome is not a disorder that is defined in the DSM-5 TR with specific “symptoms” and criteria.” It’s a much looser definition of a psychological phenomena, she claims. However, there are a few red flags to be aware of, particularly in cases of domestic abuse. What Dr. Hunter recommends is as follows:
  • a deep sense that you aren’t who you are or that what you’re doing doesn’t seem right
  • feeling hopeless and depressed
  • Provocations or acts of self-harm
  • Sensation that people are not understanding your relationship
  • a constant desire to stand up for someone you believe is harming you
  • Getting upset with loved ones or friends for attempting to keep you safe
  • In general, sensations of fear and anxiety
  • People with Stockholm syndrome, according to Dr. Manly, have a tendency to stand up for individuals who mistreat them. The victim may display symptoms of fear, anxiety, depression, or overt trauma (hyperreactivity, emotional dysregulation) if they are separated from or asked to align with the oppressor, regardless of their positive or flat affect, according to the author. “They will focus on the [positive] attributes of the victimizer and the situation, despite the untenable nature of their experiences,” the author claims.

How to Treat Stockholm Syndrome?

Since Stockholm syndrome is not a recognized diagnosis, there are no evidence-based therapies for it, claims Dr. Goldberg Mintz. Dr. Hunter continues, “She says that in order to work toward acknowledging what has happened, to see that it was abuse, and to build empowerment and awareness around the fact that the individual is no longer trapped, Stockholm syndrome typically requires long-term trauma therapy.” “On the other hand, therapy could be beneficial in treating any trauma connected to this.”

She claims that this practice may help the victim deal through the trauma, their own actions, and their felt shame, as well as eventually severing their connection with their abuser. Dr. Manly explains, more precisely.

DISCLAIMER: We advise our readers to watch this movie only on official media services like ZEE5, Disney+ Hotstar, and Netflix. Don’t support or use unauthorized websites like Moviesda, iBomma, Isaimini, Moviesverse, Mp4moviez, Tamilplay, Tamilblasters, or Movierulz to stream movies online.

YouTube ChannelFollow
Fb PageFollow
Telegram ChannelFollow

Related Articles

Back to top button